Date of Award

Spring 4-5-2017

Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Education (EdD)


Organizational Leadership

First Advisor

Doug DeVore, Ed.D.

Second Advisor

A.J. "Skip" Roland, Ed.D.

Third Advisor

Paulette Koss, Ed.D.


Purpose: The purpose of this qualitative phenomenological study was to explore and describe the barriers to the integration of information and communication technology (ICT) to support active learning in the classroom as perceived by middle school site principals.

Methodology: The participants in this study were 16 middle school principals in Southern California. They answered interview questions about barriers to integrating ICT for active learning, strategies to reduce or eliminate the barriers, and how they determined ICT was being used for active learning.

Findings: The findings indicated that the first-order barriers of funding to provide access to ICT and limited or ineffective professional development combined with the second-order barriers of teachers’ lack of knowledge of ICT to support active learning activities and teachers’ traditional teaching styles are significant. Principals believe that providing technology, professional development opportunities, and time for teachers to collaborate about the use of ICT for active learning activities are effective strategies for eliminating or reducing barriers to ICT integration.

Conclusions: Principals are able to identify first- and second-order barriers to integrating ICT for active learning. The second-order barriers of teachers’ knowledge and traditional teaching styles are much more difficult to reduce and require divergent approaches when compared to first-order barriers. The school site principal is in a unique position to identify and reduce these barriers

Recommendations: The researcher recommends that principals receive training in research-based ICT and active learning evaluative models and develop skills in creating school technology plans. Additionally, principals should work with their administrative teams to regularly observe classrooms to determine the frequency and effectiveness of active learning activities supported by ICT.