Date of Award

Summer 7-25-2023

Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Education (EdD)

First Advisor

Dr. Philip O. Pendley

Second Advisor

Dr. Felicia Haecker

Third Advisor

Dr. Melissa Bazanos-Hutton


Purpose: The purpose of this quantitative correlational study was to determine what relationship exists between U.S. Army field grade officers’ self-reported scores on the five domains of the Leadership Practices Inventory (LPI) (Kouzes & Posner, 2002) and their self-reported scores on the Experiences in Close Relationships Scale (ECR) (Brennan et al., 1998). Methodology: This study used a correlational approach to collect quantitative data from U.S. Army field grade officers. Using the LPI, a self-report transformational leadership measurement tool developed by Kouzes and Posner (2002), that measures five domains that include: (a) model the way, (b) inspire a shared vision, (c) challenge the process, (d) encourage the heart, and (e) enable others to act. The U.S. Army field grade officers’ LPI scores were then correlated to the ECR scores. Findings: There were several statistically significant findings as a result of this study as well as incidental findings that suggest future areas of study. The higher scores on the model the way domain are associated with lower levels of avoidance. Leaders who scored higher in enables others to act domain have lower anxiety and avoidance scores. When the total LPI score increases, scores on the avoidance score tend to decrease. The correlation between rank and anxiety score is statistically significant. Anxiety scores decrease as rank increases.


Conclusion: The data suggest that specific domain scores within the LPI have statistically significant correlations with attachment styles identified using the ECR. Additionally, there were incidental findings. When the total LPI score increases, scores on the avoidance score tend to decrease, suggesting that the leaders with a strong LPI score are less avoidant than their peers and likely possess a secure attachment style. It is concluded that leaders with high levels of attachment anxiety tend to predict lower job satisfaction and higher levels of negative affect among followers. Data shows that as rank increases, anxiety decreases, likely due to gaining experience and confidence. Also, total LPI scores increased with rank. Recommendations: The following studies provide ways to continue developing this interdisciplinary research: longitudinal studies, cross-cultural, mediating, and moderating factors, organizational context, and leadership effectiveness.