Date of Award

Summer 8-3-2021

Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Education (EdD)


Organizational Leadership

First Advisor

Patrick Ainsworth

Second Advisor

Keith Larick

Third Advisor

Walt Buster


Purpose: The purpose of this convergent parallel design mixed methods case study was to determine how training on Adverse Childhood Experiences and Trauma-Informed Educational Practice affected the attitudes of teachers, in Shasta County’s Enterprise Elementary School District (EESD), regarding students who had experienced Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE). A further purpose of this study was to understand if teachers in EESD perceived training in ACE and Trauma-Informed Educational Practices (TIEP) was effective in changing their classroom practices to support the resiliency of students who had experienced ACEs.

Methodology: The methods for this research included: an online survey, The Attitudes Regarding Trauma-Informed Care (ARTIC) Scale© by The Traumatic Stress Institute, distributed electronically to 140 teachers EESD Teachers and concurrent interviews of 9 volunteer EESD Teachers. The results were studied to gain an understanding of the effects of ACE trainings and TIEP on the attitudes and classroom practices of teachers and student resiliency.

Findings: The teachers reported that ACE & TIEP trainings positively impacted their relationships with students, changed their classroom practices, improved student resiliency, and decreased negative behaviors.

Conclusions: Teacher education in ACE and TIEP is beneficial to teachers. Teachers gain valuable perspectives regarding student behaviors and helped them gain valuable skills. Whole School approaches to TIEP lead to an increase in positive student outcomes and develop student resiliency.

Recommendations: It is recommended that a replication of this study be conducted on a larger scale with multiple rural districts, however, not conducted during a pandemic. Conduct a mixed methods comparative study of communities, comparing communities that use a trauma-informed communities’ approach. Research school districts which have developed the ‘Whole School’ approach including training and supporting parents/caregivers, teachers, and other staff to include not only TIEP for the students but includes Trauma-Informed Supervision for staff and teachers and trauma-informed parenting for the parents.