Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Education (EdD)


Organizational Leadership

First Advisor

Jonathan Greenberg, Ed.D.

Second Advisor

Patrick Ainsworth, Ed.D.

Third Advisor

Martinrex Kedziora, Ed.D.


Purpose: The purpose of this quantitative study is to identify the impact of principal leadership behaviors on the efficacy of new and experienced teachers in California STW-TCS middle schools.

Methodology: This quantitative study investigated leadership behaviors of principals that enhance the efficacy of teachers. Teachers from Bay Area – Sacramento STW-TCS middle schools were surveyed using the Teacher Sense of Efficacy Scale (TSES) and Principal Rating and Rating Scale (PRRS). Demographic information was obtained to compare principal behaviors and teacher efficacy in relation to teacher gender, teacher years of experience, poverty level of school, school size, and location of school community.

Findings: Examination of data from the 251 participants indicated that teacher efficacy was significantly affected by principal behaviors. Teachers with the least amount of experience identified the fewest amount of significant principal behaviors enhancing efficacy, whereas teachers with the most experience identified the most number of significant principal behaviors.

Conclusions: Efficacy among the least experienced teachers at STW-TCS middle schools is affected only by their principal’s influence on their own supervisor. As teachers gain more experience, the principal behavior of influencing supervisors remains important but becomes less so compared to giving teachers opportunities to make decisions and being involved in the school site (empowering staff), creating teams working towards a shared goal (inspiring group purpose), protecting instructional time (discipline), being aware of the campus happenings (situational awareness) and employing a variety of leadership behaviors dependent upon the situation (flexibility). For the most experienced teachers, all of the above principal behaviors are statistically significant in building teacher efficacy, with the exception of flexibility, and in the addition of communication, monitoring and evaluating instruction, and contingent rewards.

Recommendations: Further research is recommended to validate the results of this study, as well as expanding the knowledge of the impact of principal leadership behaviors on teacher efficacy. This includes replicating the present study with a sample population of other STW-TCS regions in California, as well as identified Schools to Watch middle schools throughout the country. Examination of the leadership behaviors of principals of these model middle schools could assist struggling schools.